Räumung oder der Verbleib der Bevölkerung in Gebäuden bei CBRN-Lagen - Eine Gegenüberstellung am Beispiel der Freien und Hansestadt Hamburg

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Dokumentart: Bachelor Thesis
Institut: Department Medizintechnik
Sprache: Deutsch
Erstellungsjahr: 2019
Publikationsdatum:
SWD-Schlagwörter: Räumung , Bevölkerung , Gebäude , ABC-Waffen , Gegenüberstellung , Hamburg
DDC-Sachgruppe: Öffentliche Verwaltung

Kurzfassung auf Deutsch:

kein Abstract in Originalsprache vorhanden

Kurzfassung auf Englisch:

Since decades hazardous materials of all kinds are transported all over the world by different ways of transportation. 2015 more than 306 million tonnes of hazardous substances were transported only in and through Germany.1 Considering this amount, it cannot always be avoided that accidents or carelessness cause these substances to escape into the environment. But a scenario like that cannot only be caused by accident. It is also possible, considering the threat level nowadays that a terrorist attack using dangerous gases or liquids is no longer unimaginable in Germany. So it is very important that civil protection and disaster control organizations are prepared for these kind of scenarios to be able to avoid as much harm and destruction as possible. Due to the fact that a CBRN situation has often a great impact on many people, it is a big challenge for emergency services to take clearing, or even evacuation measures for which neither time, staffing nor accommodation are available at short notice.2 Therefore consideration must be given, as to whether and in which CBRN situations it may be more appropriate to leave the population in their premises, or to initiate only a partial clearance, instead of exposing them to further risks by evacuation. Since there are still no clearly defined procedures for these scenarios so far, the operational management decides on its own terms how to deal with it. This paper should serve as an aid for future incidents. Here, two industrially very frequently produced, transported and used gases (ammonia and chlorine) and their fictitious discharge were simulated using the software ALOHA. The software was developed by the US authorities NOAA and EPA. In its calculations, ALOHA considers current weather data, such as the wind direction and wind speed as well as outside temperatures. Also the substance-specific properties are taken into computation.3 In case studies, the differences between normal and higher wind speed as well as differences of humidity are presented and compared. It turned out that the protective effect of buildings is lower than expected. Because of this a clear recommendation to simply one action cannot be given. A combination of different actions must be considered.

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